Understanding about how UCCs affect urban freight transport is mostly based on mathematical models and on the opinions of stakeholders who do not actually use a UCC. The purpose of this paper is to study empirically how the introduction of a UCC influences the logistics processes, costs, and service levels of suppliers. In a multiple case study, we collect data about the distribution networks of nine suppliers (including their receivers, carriers, and the UCC). Analyses of these data show that introducing a UCC affects the logistics processes of many actors in a distribution network, and these effects differ strongly depending on how the distribution network was structured initially. Generally, a UCC does not result in lower logistics costs for suppliers, at least not in the short-term, and often requires new service level agreements with receivers. We hope our study provides stakeholders with a balanced view on the role UCCs can play in making urban freight transport more sustainable.
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